A Rectifier converts  AC (Alternating Current) in to DC (Direct Current ). Generally Diode is used as rectifier.  Rectifier uses the property of Diode to allow flow of current in only one direction.
Half Wave Rectifier
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Half Wave Rectifier : This is simplest form of rectifier. It uses single diode. Output is half cycle of the waveform so efficiency is half. Ripple voltage is high. It is cheap, simple and easy to construct. Half wave rectifier is widely used in mobile charger or at secondary coil of SMPS.

Full Wave Rectifier : Full wave rectifier circuit rectifies the AC in both directions providing a DC signal for each AC cycle by using two or four Diodes. For two diode rectifier circuit it is necessary to have center tap transformer. Four Diode rectifier also called Bridge Rectifier is widely used. Output efficiency of full-wave rectifier is double of that of a half-wave rectifier. Ripple voltage is low and of higher frequency

Half Wave Rectifier
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Common diodes used in this application are the 1N4007 Diode

In order to produce steady DC from a rectified AC supply, a smoothing circuit or you can say a filter is required. We have used electrolytic capacitor of value 1000 Mfd/25V as a filter.

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