Transistor as a Switch

Aim of this project is to determine characteristic of a NPN transistor by varying base voltage and detect Cut-off Region and Saturation Region.
We have used a potentio-meter for varying Base voltage. After assembling the circuit use a digital multi-meter and scale mark the voltage. You can also attach a multi-meter permanently.

Traffic Light

This is Simple Circuit to make a Traffic Light using popular IC 555. A fixed interwell of square wave is produced by 555 IC which is fed to a Counter IC CD4017.

Touch Switch

We can protect our product or thing by making them touch proof or we can stop any unidentified persons entry in our house by making door and window touch proof. This circuit alert us when anyone come to stole products from our house or touch any metallic thing at door / window or in side

Temperature Sensor

This project uses IC LM35 as a sensor for detecting accurate centigrade temperature. We can activate or deactivate a device at a particular margin temperature. For simplicity we have used 2 LED for indication  of both low (Green) and high (Red)

Solar Cell

The circuit illustrated here is used as Solar Cell. You can get plate from your old faulty solar calculator. Carefully dissemble plate with out tearing its 2 wire. Connect both wire to a LED through a switch. When Solar Plate is kept in sunlight and switched ON you will see LED glows .

NAND as Universal Gate

By combination of  NAND Gate we can construct AND, OR, NOT (basic logic gates) so we call NAND as Universal Gate. This is also true for NOR Gate. But we prefer NAND gate over NOR because of low logic effort and delay. For input level (High and Low) I have used 2 way...

Magnetic Switch

Here is a simple Electronic Switch which can be operated by any Magnetic Field.  It can serve purpose of REED Switch with little modification using a relay because it can not directly drive electrical loads as their output drive capabilities are very small around 10...